Galaxies are not scattered randomly throughout the universe, but are often found in "clusters," which are in turn parts of larger groupings called "super-clusters." How did these structures of the universe come about? Did the material that galaxies comprise come together first, giving birth to stars, or did stars form first, gravitating toward one another to form galaxies?
Astronomers in the latter half of the 20th century have made wondrous discoveries, expanding our understanding of the universe and our vision beyond the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Humanity's knowledge of how the cosmos was born and how its many phenomena arise has grown exponentially in a period of time equivalent to just one human lifetime. Nevertheless, despite these great strides, some fundamental questions remain largely unanswered, chief among them, how did the first galaxies form?